Friday, September 09, 2005


Denmark Researchers Claim Hydrogen Storage Breakthrough

Posted by ben @ 8:15 PM | Permanent Link

A company started by researchers from the Technical University of Denmark in Lyngby (north of Copenhagen) claim to have a hydrogen storage material that surpasses the Department of Energy's goals for the year 2015. The solid state hydrogen storage that they call AMMINEX reportedly holds 9.1 wt% H2 (DOE goal for 2015 is 9.0 wt%), it has a volumetric density of 0.11 kg H2/l (DOE goal for 2015 is 0.081 kg H2/l) and it has an energy density of 13.0 MJ/l (DOE goal for 2015 is 9.72 MJ/l). The reaction to produce H2 with this material is reversible, it has fast kinetics so that it can generate H2 on demand and it is apparently made from cheap materials.

In comparison, the energy densities of other fuels are: Gasoline 34MJ/l, Diesel 39MJ/l, LPG 24MJ/l, Ethanol 22MJ/l, Methanol 16MJ/l, AMMINEX 13MJ/l, Liquid H2 8MJ/l, 700atm H2 5MJ/l, 350atm H2 3MJ/l, 1atm H2 0.01MJ/l, Li-S 2MJ/l, Conventional Li-ion 1MJ/l.

This work was published on sept 7, 2005 in the Journal of Materials Chemistry. The hydrogen storage system is based on metal ammine complexes, they tested Mg(NH3)6Cl2. This material is a salt that can be compacted into a pellet to obtain a high volumetric density. At elevated temperatures, between 77-347C, the ammonia (NH3) is released and it is fairly simple to produce H2 and N2 from that released ammonia. The solid state hydrogen storage is completely reversible, meaning that the depleted salt MgCl2 can easily be regenerated into Mg(NH3)6Cl2. This is how the process works:

From the article: "The only drawback is that metal ammine complexes deliver hydrogen in the form of ammonia. This can be used directly as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell without further reaction."

There wouldn't be much point in using this system to run a solid oxide fuel cell though because SOFCs are primarily used for stationary applications and the ammonia might as well be trucked to the location of the SOFC instead. Hydrogen storage is mostly required for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC) that most people think will pwer their cars some day.

This hydrogen storage material though only releases hydrogen with an energy input of 43KJ/mol (to releases the ammonia) + 32KJ/mol (to convert ammonia into hydrogen) = 75KJ/mol. Although the PEM fuel cell reactions are exothermic (meaning they give off heat) there would not be enough heat released by these reactions even if the PEM fuel cell was operating at 700C, which it can't because of material constraints.

Where the "required" column is the energy required to extract hydrogen from this hydrogen storage technique after using the waste heat generated by the fuel cell and the "% of H2 energy content" column is how much energy would be taken away from the hydrogen due to the fact that energy must be put into the system to release the hydrogen.

So what this means is that if the PEM fuel cell could operate at 300C (which it can't at the moment), then this hydrogen storage system would reduce the energy content of the hydrogen that it produces by 19%. Much better than liquefied hydrogen which requires about 50% of the energy content of hydrogen. But I think that the PEMFC as it is today is dead, because it has to be able to operate at elevated temperatures to minimize the energy losses of these hydrogen storage technologies.

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